1、What Is Language?
重点：origins of language; properties and design features of language; development of written language.
2、What Is Linguistics?
重点：definition of linguistics; scope of linguistics; some important distinctions in linguistics; traditional vs modern linguistics; descriptive vs prescriptive grammar; langue vs parole; competence vs performance; synchronic vs diachronic linguistics; functionalism vs formalism.
3、Phonetics and Phonology
重点：definition of phonetics; organs of speech; place and manners of articulation; broad and narrow transcriptions; classification of English vowels and consonants; liaison; definition of phonology; phone, phoneme, and allophone; phonemic contrast, complementary distribution, distinctive features; and minimal pair and sets; some rules in phonology like sequential rules, assimilation rules, and deletion rules; suprasegmental features like stress, tone and intonation, and their functions in communication
重点：definition of morphology; free and bound morphemes; derivational vs and inflectional; morphological rules; morphs and allomorphs; word-formation processes like coinage, borrowing, compounding, blending, clipping, backformation, conversion, acronym, derivation, prefixes, suffixes, and infixes.
5、Grammar / Syntax
重点：types of grammar / syntax; definition of grammar / syntax; parts of speech / word classes; traditional grammar, grammatical categories, and grammatical analysis; the prescriptive and descriptive approaches; structural and immediate constituent analysis; transformational generative grammar; systemic functional grammar; labeled and bracketed sentences; basic components of a sentence; types of sentences; linear and hierarchical structures of sentences; lexical and phrasal categories; grammatical relations; combinational rules; syntactic movement and movement rules; general principles and parameters of Universal Grammar; deep and surface structure; structural ambiguity; labeled tree diagrams.
重点：definition of semantics; some views concerning the study of meaning; word meaning; semantic triangle; sense and reference; seven types of meaning; semantic field; major sense relations like synonymy, polysemy, homonymy, hyponymy, and antonymy; componential analysis; sense relations between sentences; sentence meaning; sentence meaning and proposition; semantic roles; meaning and logic: entailment, presupposition, implicature; metaphor; metonymy; collocation; prototypes; componential and predication analysis.
重点：definition of pragmatics; context; sentence meaning vs utterance meaning; speech act theory; principles of conversation; cooperative principle and its maxims; conversational implicatures; politeness principle; deixis; reference; anaphora; presupposition.
重点：Interpreting discourse; cohesion and coherence; conjunctions; discourse markers; conversation analysis; adjacency pairs; preference structure; presequences; information structure; given & new information; topic & comment; contrast; how to do discourse analysis
重点：The purpose and significance of historical linguistics; the nature and causes of language change; major periods in the history of English; linguistic change of English; language family
重点：Speech community and speech variety; personal, regional and social dialects, stylistics, and idiolectal variation; standard and non-standard language; lingua franca, pidgins, and Creoles; diglossia and bilingualism; Black English; educational, age, gender and register varieties; slang, linguistic taboo, and euphemism; code switching.
重点：biological foundations of language; linguistic lateralization; the language centers; the critical period for language acquisition; early views on language and thought; arguments for and against the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis; understanding the relationship between language and thought.
13、First Language Acquisition
重点：biological basis of language acquisition; roles of input and interaction, instruction, correction and reinforcement, and imitation; the four stages of first language acquisition; the development of the grammatical system (e.g. phonology, syntax, vocabulary, semantics, and morphology).
14、Second Language Acquisition
重点：Acquisition vs learning; transfer and interference; the natural route of SLA development; contrastive analysis, error analysis; interlanguage and fossilization; the role of input and formal instruction; individual learner factors like age, motivation, acculturation, and personality.